Flat foot, also medically called Pes Planus, is a condition in which the arches of a person’s feet are not visible and the entire undersides of their feet contact completely onto the ground.

(From: http://boneandspine.com/overpronation-of-foot/)

Over 70% of the population in Australia have flat feet. Although some of the flat feet are “rigid” flat feet, which are inflexible, most of the flat feet are what is actually, and better, described as ‘flexible flat feet’. ‘Flexible flat feet’ do, technically, not have completely collapsed arches, although they may appear to be so while a person is standing, bearing their full weight. The arches of a person who has ‘flexible flat feet’ will typically reappear when they either stand on their heels, or when they pull their toes back whilst keeping the rest of their feet in contact with the ground.

Despite this fact, some people tend to wrongly call all feet that appear to be flat, as “flat foot”.

The condition of ‘flexible flat foot’ is, nonetheless, generally not a foot at its natural best. Such a condition can cause considerable foot pain, shin pain, knee pain, and lower back pain. The root cause of ‘flexible flat foot’ is excessive foot pronation. Another expression, that of ‘Flat arch’, and also known as lower-than-normal arch, is where the angle of the calcaneus (heel bone) is less than 42 degrees from the transverse plane.

(From: http://www.northsiderunners.com.au/fit-process)

Flat feet in children

The arches of young children do typically not normally fully develop until they are about 10 years old. It is therefore normal and common for young children up to this age to have some degree of flat footedness. Furthermore, as little evidence has been found for their efficacy with such young users, it is generally not recommended that children younger than this age wear orthoses.
Rather, children with flat feet are encouraged to walk & play barefooted, especially over soft accommodating terrain, such as a beach or soft grass. Children, however, with rigid flat feet or fasciitis, are not recommended to go barefooted.

A medical study in India involving large numbers of children, some of whom who had grown up wearing shoes and others who had grown up barefooted, was particularly informative in regards to how we can naturally optimize the health & function of a child’s developing foot. It was found that not only were the longitudinal arches of the barefooters generally strongest and highest, but also flat feet were less common in children who had grown up wearing open sandals or slippers, in comparison to those who had worn closed-toe shoes.

Symptoms of Flat Feet

Many people with ‘flexible flat feet’ experience no pain or symptoms. Some ‘flexible flat footers’, however, experience symptoms including:

Foot pain

Heel pain

Ankle pain

Shin pain

Knee pain

Lower back pain

The excessive inward rolling of Flat Feet results in significant unnatural compensatory rotational forces, stresses & strains being exerted upon the bones, ligaments, tendons and soft tissues of the foot. These same compensating forces, however, then transmit upwards, resulting in similar stresses, strains & twisting forces being brought to bear on numerous of the ligaments, tendons, bones & muscles of each of the shin, knee, thigh, pelvis and lower back.

Contributing Factors

for Adult Flat Feet

– Injuries
– Unusual or prolonged stress and strain on the foot
– Faulty biomechanics
– Age
– Overweight/obesity

Treatment

of Flat Feet

The most effective treatment to correct over pronation is to wear quality orthotic footwear such as premium grade, over-the-counter orthotic shoes/thongs/sandals. This very simple & natural treatment will help most people with ‘flexible flat feet’.

People with rigid flat feet, however, may wish to seek specialist advice from either a medical or podiatric specialist.